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                Australian Pelican

                Australian Pelican

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Class
                Subclass
                Infraclass
                Superorder
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Pelecanus conspicillatus
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                15-25 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                56 km/h
                WEIGHT
                4.5-7.7 kg
                LENGTH
                1.6-1.9 m
                WINGSPAN
                2.5-3.4 m

                Australian pelican is a species of water birds. They are large in size, having the longest beak among all pelicans. Males are slightly bigger than females. These pelicans have four webbed toes on each foot. The Australian pelican has asmall hook at the tip of its beak, which has jagged edges and helps the bird hold down slippery fish. These pelicans have quite a delicate beak: the lower jaw has 2 feeble and thin articulated bones, holding the pouch. The Australian pelicans can easily get wet and cold because of not having enough water-repellent oil on their feathers. These birds are white in color, having black tips on tail and wings. The beak and pouch are pink while feet and legs are blue-gray. In addition, they have a gray colored stripe behind their head, stretching half way down the neck.

                Distribution

                The main habitat of Australian pelicans is sandy coastlines, spits and sandbars. Generally, they live in areas with an abundance of fish. They are found in close proximity to interior rivers, coastlines, lakes and marshes. These pelicans are widely distributed along the shore and inland of Fiji, Australia and New Guinea. Also, they can occasionally be found in New Zealand and Indonesia.

                Australian Pelican habitat map

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Australian pelicans are diurnal animals. They are very sociable, flying together in groups. To breed, the pelicans congregate intolarge colonies, sometimes containing up to 40,000 birds. During courtship displays and in everyday life, they communicate by means of visual signals, using their beaks, necks, wings and pouches. They fly long distances, looking for breeding sites and source of water. They are able to remain in the air for over 24 hours. The pelicans fly slowly, sometimes gliding in thermals in order to save energy. In addition, being waders, they form ‘V’ when flying in flocks.

                Group name

                Diet and Nutrition

                The pelicans are carnivores (piscivores), they generally feed upon fish, but their diet includes also crustaceans, tadpoles, shrimp and, sometimes, turtles. In order to drink, they open their beaks and collect rainwater.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                any time of the year
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                32-37 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                4 months
                BABY NAME
                chick, nestling
                BABY CARRYING
                1-3 eggs

                These birds are seasonally monogamous, meaning that they mate once in every mating season. In order to breed, the pelicans usually congregate into large colonies. Breeding can occur at any season, if there are suitable conditions. During courting dance, a male tries to attract the attention of a female, after which the winning male and the female go to their nesting site. Then, the female lays 1-3 eggs on average; the eggs are chalky-white in color. Males, along with females, participate in incubation process, which lasts 32-37 days. Hatched chicks are born blind and naked. After 28 days, they leave the nest to join a group, consisting of up to 100 chicks. At the age of nearly 4 months, when parents stop feeding them, the young become independent. They reach sexual maturity at the age of 3-4 years.

                Population

                Population threats

                The Australian pelicans are widely distributed over the area of their habitat. The species is not globally threatened; however, dangers are present. Sometimes the Australian pelicans become entangled in fishing tackles, left on the shore. In addition, fishing hooks are sharp and can tear the pouch of a pelican.

                Population number

                In the IUCN Red List, the Australian pelican is classified as a species of Least Concern (LC). The overall number of population is stable but unknown. However, it’s considered that there are around 300,000-500,000 pelicans only in Australia.

                Ecological niche

                Australian pelicans play important role in the ecosystem of their habitat. They disperse plant species. They feed upon fish that eat plants. And then, when pelicans move, they transplant the plant propagules from one place to another by means of their feces. Thus, the Australian pelicans contribute to plant species’ movement, recolonizing wetlands with little vegetation. However, the dispersal can lead to appearance and spread of exotic species of plants.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • The Australian pelicans have an extremely light skeleton, which weighs only 10% out of the whole weight of their body and allows them to fly.
                • The beak of Australian pelican is the largest of all birds. It’s so large and spacious, that can hold from 9 to 13 liters of water.
                • In spite of being used for feeding, the pouch can serve as a cooling “device”: in order to cool off, pelicans just swing the pouch.
                • These pelicans can soar at height of up to 3 kilometers.
                • They are able to eat four pounds of fish a day.
                • When catching fish, they take huge amount of water into the pouch. Then they move the head forward, pour out the water and swallow the fish.

                References

                1. Australian Pelican Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_pelican
                2. Australian Pelican on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697608/0

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