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                Barnacle Goose

                Barnacle Goose

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Class
                Order
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Branta leucopsis
                Population size
                880,000
                Life Span
                24 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                95 km/h
                WEIGHT
                1-2 kg
                LENGTH
                55-70 cm
                WINGSPAN
                130-145 cm

                Barnacle geese are medium-sized birds that breed mainly on the Arctic islands of the North Atlantic. They have a white face and black head, neck, and upper breast; their belly is white. The wings and their back are silver-gray with black-and-white bars that look like they are shining when the light reflects on it. During the flight, these birds show a V-shaped white rump patch and the silver-gray underwing linings.

                Distribution

                Barnacle geese occur in three main populations, with separate breeding and wintering ranges, from west to east which include eastern Greenland, Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya (northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe). A new fourth population, derived from the Novaya Zemlya population, has become established since 1975 breeds on the islands and coasts of the Baltic Sea (Estonia, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden). Occasionally, wild birds will appear in the Northeastern United States or Canada. Breeding habitats include coastal tundra with cliffs, rocky outcrops, and steep slopes, often near lakes, rivers, and marshes. On the wintering grounds, Barnacle geese prefer grassy fields near the coastal regions, mudflats, and salt marshes.

                Barnacle Goose habitat map

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Barnacle geese are gregarious birds; they nest, feed and migrate in large flocks. They are active during the day spending most of the time foraging above-ground. Barnacle geese moult after nesting; during this time they can't fly and stay in protected areas such lakes or at sea in order to avoid predators. After the moulting period, birds usually congregate at the gathering sites, where they feed before the migration to their wintering grounds.

                Seasonal behavior

                Diet and Nutrition

                Barnacle geese are herbivorous (folivorous, graminivorous) birds. They feed mainly on leaves, herbs, grass, roots, mosses, sedges, and aquatic vegetation. During the winter they may feed on agricultural grain and occasionally vegetables.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                late May-June
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                24-26 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                40-45 days
                FEMALE NAME
                goose
                MALE NAME
                gander
                BABY NAME
                gosling
                BABY CARRYING
                3-5 eggs

                Barnacle geese are monogamous and form long-lasting pair bonds. They breed in late May-June usually in colonies that may include up to 50 pairs. Females construct the nests locating them on cliff edges in order to avoid predators. The nest is made of dead foliage and mud and lined with down. The female lays 3 to 5 white eggs, and incubates them during 24-26 days; during this time the male feed and protects her. At hatching, goslings are precocial (fully-developed); they are able to leave the nest soon after birth and follow their parents to nearby marshes to feed themselves. The young fledge at 40 to 45 days old and become reproductively mature when they are 2-3 years old.

                Population

                Population threats

                Barnacle geese are persecuted by farmers because during the winter they often visit fields and farmlands to feed on grass. In Svalbard, these birds also suffer from predation by Arctic foxes which hunt adult birds, eggs and newly hatched goslings.

                Population number

                According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Barnacle goose is around 880,000 individuals. The European population consists of 196,000-247,000 pairs, which equates to 392,000-494,000 mature individuals. According to the Wikipedia resource, the species population numbers have been estimated in such areas: Greenland - about 40,000 individuals; Svalbard - about 24,000 individuals; Novaya Zemlya (Russia) - about 130,000 individuals; on the islands and coasts of the Baltic Sea (Estonia, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden) - about 8,000 individuals. Overall, currently, Barnacle geese are classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and their numbers today are increasing.

                Ecological niche

                Barnacle geese are important seed dispersers in their ecosystem as they feed on a wide variety of herbs and grasses. These birds are also a food source for local predators such as falcons, polar bears, and Arctic foxes.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • Barnacle geese belong to the genus Branta of black geese; this genus contains species with largely black plumage which distinguishes them from the grey Anser species.
                • The scientific name of the Barnacle goose 'branta' means "burnt (black) goose" the name 'leukos' means "white", and 'opsis' is translated as "faced".
                • Barnacle geese are famous for their breeding behavior. Thse birds frequently build their nests high on mountain cliffs, away from predators (primarily Arctic foxes and polar bears), but also away from food. Like all geese, the goslings are not fed by the adults and instead of bringing food to the newly hatched goslings, the goslings are brought to the ground. Unable to fly, the three-day-old goslings jump off the cliff and fall; their small size, feathery down, and very light weight helps to protect them from serious injury when they fall.
                • The natural history of the Barnacle goose was long surrounded with a legend claiming that they were born from the crustaceans called barnacles. The reason for this belief was that the geese were never seen in the summer, but barnacles were; this lead to a thought that goslings appeared from barnacles. In fact, during this time the geese were spending summer in remote Arctic regions.
                • According to another legend Barnacle geese were thought to be born from driftwood.

                References

                1. Barnacle Goose on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnacle_goose
                2. Barnacle Goose on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22679943/131909954

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