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                Black Howler Monkey

                Black Howler Monkey

                Black howling monkey, Black-and-gold howler monkey

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Suborder
                Infraorder
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Alouatta caraya
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                15-20 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                30 km/h
                WEIGHT
                4-10 kg
                LENGTH
                40-53 cm

                The Black howler monkey exhibits a noticeably big neck and lower jaw with huge vocal cords. The largest New World monkey, this primate is also the largest monkey in rainforests of Latin America. This species has a well-defined sexual dimorphism with females, being smaller and displaying buff overall coloration. Additionally, newborn babies of this species also have buff fur. Another characteristic feature of these monkeys is their prehensile tails, acting as a 'fifth limb', allowing them to grip and hang from tree branches. Being arboreal animals, the Black howler monkeys spend majority of their time high in the trees, using their gripping tails quite often. Their diet mainly consists of various leaves, found aloft.

                Distribution

                The natural range of this species covers central regions of South America, including eastern Bolivia, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. Within this territory, the Black howler monkeys occur in a wide variety of habitats such as tropical semi-deciduous gallery forest as well as tropical deciduous forest with savanna-like areas. Due to their leaf-based diet, these primates prefer living in areas with diverse plant species, which they consume.

                Black Howler Monkey habitat map

                Geography

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                The Black howler monkeys are diurnal and social animals. They usually form units of 5 - 19 individuals, typically composed of 1 - 3 mature males and 2 - 4 mature females with their young. Males of this species are known to form bachelor herds. These animals are known to display territorial behavior, although each group will only defend the territory, where it resides. Home ranges of various groups tend to overlap. Every morning, community members emit howling signals, announcing of their location to neighboring groups. This behavior allows to keep distance between various groups. The Black howler monkeys also rub themselves on branches, thus marking their home range. Additionally, in the morning and evening, they mark their territories by defecating, occasionally leaving large dung piles.

                Diet and Nutrition

                As folivorous creatures, these primates mainly consume leaves. They are also known to favor fruits, buds and flowers.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                Year-round
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                180-194 days
                BABY CARRYING
                1 infant
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                12 months
                FEMALE NAME
                female
                MALE NAME
                male
                BABY NAME
                infant

                Black howler monkeys are polygynandrous (promiscuous), which means that both males and females breed with multiple mates. Breeding occurs year round. Gestation period lasts for 180 - 194 days, yielding one infant, rarely - twins. The newborn baby is very small and weighs only 3.5 pounds (113 g). During the first month of its life, the infant will cling to the belly of its mother. After a while, it begins riding on her back. The mother will care for the baby, until it's about 1 year old. After reaching independence, females continue living with their natal group. The age of reproductive maturity is 5 years old in males and 3 - 4 years old in females.

                Population

                Population threats

                The Black howler monkeys heavily suffer from hunting for their coat and meat. These animals are primarily threatened by loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat, as a result of cattle ranching as well as agricultural development for soy.

                Population number

                According to IUCN, Black howler monkeys are widely distributed across their range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC), although its numbers are decreasing.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • These primates emit their characteristic howling calls through the special and very large voice box.
                • Allomothering is a common activity in Black howler monkeys. This is when females of a group display communal care to each other's infants, carrying, grooming and protecting the babies.
                • As much as 70% of each day is spent resting while leaves ferment in their large ceacums.
                • The species of their genus are among the biggest New World monkeys. They consume the largest amounts of leaves, as compared to all other New World monkeys. However, howlers don't have specialized stomachs.
                • Howler monkeys are also known for emitting the loudest call of all primates in the world, which they do by a special, egg-shaped hyoid bone.
                • The Black howler monkeys have a well-developed sense of smell. These animals are able to smell food from as far as 2 km.

                References

                1. Black Howler Monkey Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_howler
                2. Black Howler Monkey on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41545/0

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