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                Brush-Tailed Phascogale

                Brush-Tailed Phascogale

                Tuan, Common wambenger, Black-tailed phascogale

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Infraclass
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Phascogale tapoatafa
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                1-3 yrs
                WEIGHT
                110-311 g
                LENGTH
                16-27 cm

                The magnificent Brush-tailed phascogale has an unusual ‘bottle brush’ tail, which is covered with long, silky, black colored hairs that can be erected on occasion. The head and body of this marsupial are grizzled grey, while the under parts are pale cream. Females of this species have a 'fake' pouch: they simply have a pouch area, exhibiting noticeably coarser, brown colored hairs with light tips. Males of this species show die-off shortly after mating, without even reaching 1 year old. Life expectancy of females is up to 3 years.

                Distribution

                Brush-tailed phascogales are only found in Australia. The range of Northern subspecies includes the northernmost part of Western Australia, the northern coastline of the Northern Territory and the northern tip of Queensland. Other subspecies are distributed from Rockhampton (Queensland) southwards to the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia to southern Western Australia. They live in humid and arid habitats in dense to open forests, meanwhile preferring to nest and forage in eucalyptus forests. However, these marsupials are most frequently found in open, dry schlerophyll forests with sparse vegetation on the ground.

                Brush-Tailed Phascogale habitat map

                Geography

                Continents
                Countries

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                The Brush-tailed phascogales demonstrate activity during the nighttime hours, between dusk and dawn. These solitary animals forage only in the tree canopy. Home ranges of male individuals usually overlap with these of conspecifics, enlarging during the breeding season. Home ranges of female phascogales vary from 20 to 70 ha in size, without overlapping with these of unrelated females. Brush-tailed phascogales are generally arboreal, living in trees and rarely descending to the ground. When moving between trees, these excellent climbers can take long leaps of up to 2 meters. Their nests and shelters are located in tree hollows, typically lined with leaves, shredded bark as well as faeces. When disturbed, phascogales will give out an alarm call by producing a low, hissing sound. When encountering an opponent or rival, they are known to give out various chit-chit sounds.

                Diet and Nutrition

                These marsupials are carnivores, they mainly consume cockroaches, centipedes, spiders, ants and moths and beetles. They complement their usual diet with nectar from plants as well as small birds and mammals.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                mid-May - July
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                30 days
                BABY CARRYING
                3-8 joyes
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                5 months
                BABY NAME
                joey, pup

                Brush-tailed phascogales have a polygynous mating system. They breed only 3 weeks, from mid-May to July, during which males move from one female to another every 2 - 3 days. After a gestation period of 30 days, the female produces a litter of 3 - 8 joeys. Females develop a fleshy rim on their pouchy area, which encloses the young. The newborn joeys climb into this 'pouch', where they continue to grow. By 7 weeks old, the babies move to a nest, where they remain until 5 months of age. Sexual maturity is reached by 10 months old.

                Population

                Population threats

                During the last 30 years, the range of this species has reduced to 50%. This sharp decline is likely to be caused by clearance of favorable habitat. In addition, logging and mining leads to alteration of their habitat, due to which the animals lose a huge number of trees with suitable hollows, which they use as nesting sites. On the other hand, this phascogale is hunted by cats, foxes and other introduced predators, while feral cats and cane toads are a source of disease for this species.

                Population number

                The IUCN Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Brush-tailed phascogale total population. However, their numbers are decreasing today, and the species is classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List.

                Ecological niche

                Being insectivorous, these animals affect insect populations in their range.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • Due to predating on fowl, Brush-tailed phascogales were originally called “Vampire Marsupials”.
                • Due to unusual foot structure, these animals can rotate their hind limbs up to 180 degrees. They are also known to hang upside down when feeding: they are likely to feel most comfortable when eating in this position.
                • Females of this species live up to 3 years. By the end of their life, their canines are blunt and incisors worn almost to the gum.
                • When the Brush-tailed phascogale senses danger, it taps its front limbs repeatedly against the bark of a tree as an alarm.
                • When bounding along, these animals move by the characteristic abrupt and clumsy gait. When hunting, they walk slowly with stealthily movements. And finally, they hit the prey sharply and quickly.

                References

                1. Brush-Tailed Phascogale Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brush-tailed_phascogale
                2. Brush-Tailed Phascogale on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/16890/0
                3. Brush-tailed Phascogale Illustration - https://creazilla.com/nodes/60288-brush-tailed-phascogale-vector

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