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                Bush Stone-Curlew

                Bush Stone-Curlew

                Bush thick-knee

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Class
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Burhinus grallarius
                Population size
                10-15 Thou
                Life Span
                20-30 yrs
                WEIGHT
                625-670 g
                HEIGHT
                50-60 cm
                WINGSPAN
                55–60 cm

                The Bush stone-curlew is an unusual looking bird, unlike any other Australian bird. It is mainly nocturnal, a large, slim, ground-dwelling bird with long gangly legs, big yellow eyes, and gray streaked upper parts. This coloring makes it hard to see in the bushland, especially in the shadows and in the evening, when most active. Both genders are similar. This charismatic bird has a distinctive, wailing call, described as ‘melancholy’, ‘mournful’, ‘eerie’ or ‘frightening’.

                Distribution

                The Bush stone-curlew inhabits all of Australia except for Tasmania and the West Australian coast. Small populations also occur in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It lives in a broad range of habitats, from open forest and eucalyptus woodland to rainforest edges, arid scrubland, grassy plains, and along swamps and inland watercourses.

                Geography

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                This shy species occupies a breeding territory of 10-25 hectares, living in loose flocks or pairs. During the day it hides, coming out at night to feed on seeds, insects, spiders, small frogs and reptiles. During the breeding season, birds that are nesting will search in the vicinity of their nest site for food, while at other times, they may travel large distances. They always feed from the ground. They squat on the grass during the daytime, either in a small group or alone. When threatened, they stay still or slowly walk away.

                Diet and Nutrition

                Bush stone-curlews are carnivores, they eat insects, mollusks, seeds, small lizards, and sometimes small mammals.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                July-January
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                28 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                3-9 months
                BABY NAME
                chick
                BABY CARRYING
                2 eggs

                Bush stone-curlews are a monogamous species and are thought to maintain long-term pair bonds. They have a remarkable courtship display where an individual will stand with its wings outstretched, its tail upright and its neck stretched slightly forward. It stamps it feet like a soldier who is marking time. This ritual lasts an hour or more and is accompanied by constant loud calling. This species breeds during July and January. The nest is a small clearing or scrape on bare ground, most often near a fallen branch or bush. Two eggs are usually laid, and incubated for 28 days. The incubation and care of the young is shared by both parents, with feeding of the chicks for 4 weeks after hatching. Chicks stay with their parents for 3 to 9 months. The young from the previous clutch are chased away before the next clutch is laid.

                Population

                Population threats

                The main threats to this species are modification and loss of their habitat for urban development and agriculture, as well as predation by foxes and feral cats. The collection of fallen timber for firewood is a particular concern because this is likely to affect the curlews’ camouflage strategy for avoiding predators.

                Population number

                According to the IUCN Red List, the total Bush stone-curlew population size is 10,000-15,000 mature individuals. Currently this species is classified as Least Concern (LC), but its numbers today are decreasing.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • To camouflage itself further, a Bush stone-curlew can lie down flat with its long neck outstretched making it very hard to see, in fact, many people will mistake it for a piece of branch.
                • At night, Bush stone-curlews make an eerie, wailing noise. Many people have called the police, thinking they have heard someone screaming in the bush. Understandably, 'screaming woman bird' is another name for this species.
                • Bush stone-curlews are heard often at dusk and in the night.
                • If a Bush stone-curlew adult is threatened when on the nest, it will run off with its eggs or chicks under its wings to protect them from the predator.
                • Historically these birds have been recorded in groups numbering 50 to 100. However, such large flocks are no longer seen in Victoria (Australia), with many sightings on private property declining from 4 pairs to one per property over the last 30 years.

                References

                1. Bush Stone-Curlew Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bush_stone-curlew
                2. Bush Stone-Curlew on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22693600/0

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