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                Cheetah

                Cheetah

                Hunting leopard

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Suborder
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Acinonyx jubatus
                Life Span
                10-20 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                112 km/h
                WEIGHT
                21-72 kg
                HEIGHT
                70-90 cm
                LENGTH
                112-150 cm

                The cheetah is a large cat with dotted coat. This animal is identified by black marks (so-called "tear marks"), running down from the inner eye along the nose to the outside of the mouth. This feline is an extremely agile animal, having powerful hind legs and very flexible, muscular spine. The body is long and slender, covered with coarse yellowish fur with small black markings. The tail is spotted with ringed markings, having black tip on its end. In addition, the tail is quite long, helping the cheetah to keep balance and change direction. The head is small and the eyes are set high, which help them find potential prey in the grasslands. Claws of cheetah are non-retractable; they dig their claws into the ground, which enhances their grip at high speed.

                Distribution

                The species is distributed over eastern and southern Africa as well as in the Middle East. Generally, the cheetahs occur in grasslands and savannas. However, they can be found in various habitats such mountainous areas or terrains with dense vegetation. In order to hide from predators, these animals prefer environment with lush vegetation such as tall grass or bushes.

                Cheetah habitat map

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Unlike other large African predators such as lion or hyena, cheetah is most active during the day, thus avoiding competition for food with these animals. Home range of a cheetah can cover large territory, sometimes overlapping with that of another cheetah or a lion. Female cheetahs tend to roam across much larger home range than males. These cats are extremely sociable animals. Male cheetahs usually gather in small groups with their siblings while females tend to lead solitary life, gathering only when they nurse their cubs. The cheetahs are very shy and cautious, being able to hunt in the heat of the day and remain unnoticed.

                Group name

                Diet and Nutrition

                The cheetahs are carnivores. They feed mainly upon gazelles while small and medium-sized ungulates such as impalas are a good complement to their usual diet. When there’s shortage of suitable food, these animals can also consume small species such as hares or birds.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                Year-round
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                3 months
                BABY CARRYING
                2-5 cubs
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                1.5-2 years
                FEMALE NAME
                female
                MALE NAME
                male
                BABY NAME
                cub

                They have polygynous mating system, where a male mates with multiple females. In addition, male cheetahs associate with females only for mating and do not provide parental care. These animals breed all year round. The period of gestation lasts about three months, after which 2-5 cubs are born. Newborn babies are blind, being completely vulnerable. Over the following few months, the cubs are breastfed until they start eating meat. Soon the young start to accompany their mother during the hunt in order to watch and learn hunting skills. Also, they learn hunting techniques while playing with their siblings. The cubs live with their mother until they are able to hunt independently. Then, between the age of 18 months and 2 years, they leave to find their own territory. Female cheetahs reach sexual maturity at 21-22 months old.

                Population

                Population threats

                The major threats to cheetahs’ population include diseases, habitat loss, hunting and direct persecution. These animals are persecuted by farmers due to being predators, hunting on livestock. Development of tourism in the areas of their habitat can become another serious threat: tourist vehicles can drive the cheetahs away from their kills and separate cubs from their mother. The cheetahs are known to have extremely low genetic variation, which makes the survival of this species even more difficult.

                Population number

                The global population of cheetahs is currently decreasing, and on the IUCN Red List, the species is classified as Vulnerable (VU). The cheetah population in Africa is around 6.674 mature individuals. In addition, about 60-100 cheetahs live in small isolated populations in Iran.

                Ecological niche

                Due to being predators, cheetahs control populations of prey species they feed upon. Otherwise, populations these animals could become so large, that they would break down the whole food web, eating all the vegetation in the area and ruining the soil. On the other hand, cheetahs hunt on weak or sick animals, thus not allowing weaker genes to pass to the next generations and maintaining the health within prey species.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • These cats can't roar, but they can purr like domestic cats, on inhale and exhale.
                • Cheetah is an Indian word, which means "spotted one".
                • Among land animals, cheetah is the fastest. It takes the animal only 3 seconds to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h!
                • The tail of cheetah acts like a boat rudder, helping the animal to steer when running.
                • These animals use facial expressions to show their mood.
                • This is the only big cat that is able to turn in the air when sprinting.

                References

                1. Cheetah Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheetah
                2. Cheetah on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/219/0

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