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                Eastern Long-Necked Turtle

                Eastern Long-Necked Turtle

                Snake-necked turtle, Australian snake-necked turtle, Eastern snake-necked turtle, Stinker

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Suborder
                Family
                Genus
                Suborder
                Family
                Subfamily
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Chelodina longicollis
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                31-37 yrs
                WEIGHT
                444-816 g
                LENGTH
                25-28 cm

                This medium-sized turtle has oval-shaped, black to light brown colored carapace with a shallow groove on its center. Dark junctures run across cream colored plastron. The long and narrow neck is brown to gray dorsally and yellow - ventrally. The Eastern long-necked turtle has a small and pointed head. The coloration of the limbs varies from dark grey to brown. The turtles display sexual dimorphism with males, having thicker, longer tails and the inward curved plastron. Meanwhile, females are larger, identified by deeper shells and concealed tail, which is shorter and fatter, than that of males. Young turtles are usually black to dark gray in color, and their plastron is covered with orange spots. In addition, they have an orange band, running down both sides of their neck and jaw.

                Distribution

                The natural habitat of the Eastern long-necked turtle is a slow-moving water body. The species inhabit wetland and swampy areas as well as streams and rivers. The area of their distribution mainly includes south-eastern Australia, west of Adelaide to Victoria and New South Wales and north to the Fitzroy River of Queensland.

                Biome

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                These animals can change their habitat if necessary, travelling long distances in search of a suitable habitat. The Eastern long-necked turtles are solitary animals and move independently, though sometimes many individuals can be found living in the same area. This turtle is cold-blooded, diurnal animal. Their activity depends on the external temperature. Thus, they are inactive in the early morning, basking in the sun to warm up and increase their body temperature. They are most active in the mid-morning and mid-afternoon, escaping from the sun to a shelter during the noon. The Eastern long-necked turtles use touching and release of pheromones as forms of communication.

                Diet and Nutrition

                The Eastern long-necked turtles are carnivorous animals, feeding upon fish, crustaceans, mollusks, amphibians, worms and insects.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                September-October
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                120-150 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                at birth
                FEMALE NAME
                female
                MALE NAME
                male
                BABY NAME
                hatchling
                BABY CARRYING
                8-24 eggs

                These turtles have a polygynous mating system, where a male can mate with many females. The breeding season takes place during the autumn months, from September to October, while the nesting period is October-December. Their nesting sites are situated nearby water. Usually, the female lays 8-24 eggs, which have a form of ellipse and are hard-shelled. The eggs are incubated for 120-150 days, after which, between January and late April, the young hatch out. The newly hatched turtles are fully independent, receiving no parental care from their mother, who looks forward to breed again, if the conditions are favorable. It takes quite long the Eastern long-necked turtles to become sexually mature. Typically, males are mature at 7-8 years old, whereas female turtles reach maturity at 10-12 years old.

                Population

                Population threats

                These turtles currently suffer from hunting by indigenous people of Australia, who feed upon their meat. They are also hunted by their natural predators such as invasive red foxes. And finally, the animals are threatened by environmental and climatic changes.

                Population number

                The exact number of their overall population is presently unknown, but the species is fairly widespread, found in large numbers throughout the area of their habitat. Eastern Long-Necked Turtle is not listed on the IUCN Red List and is thought to be a species of least concern.

                Ecological niche

                Due to feeding upon aquatic organisms, the turtles control the numbers of these species’ populations throughout the area of their habitat.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • These turtles are sometimes in jest called "stinkers" due releasing smelly protective substances through their musk glands. The animals usually give off these protective substances if frightened, especially when people touch them.
                • The Eastern long-necked turtles get food by either foraging or using so-called ‘sit-and-wait’ technique. They often lie in a hidden place at the bottom of a water body, watching for a prey. And when it appears, they strike out at prey, opening their mouth and sucking it in.
                • When preying, the long neck of this turtle comes out of its shell sideways, striking at prey.
                • The long-necked turtles live both in the wild and in captivity. As household pets, the turtles adopt to the captive environment in a short time. Moreover, they are known to be easily tamed, taking food right from their owner's hands.
                • These turtles are good swimmers due to their large web. Also, they have strong claws on their front feet.

                References

                1. Eastern Long-Necked Turtle Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_long-necked_turtle

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