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                Galápagos Fur Seal

                Galápagos Fur Seal

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Suborder
                Clade
                Family
                SPECIES
                Arctocephalus galapagoensis
                Population size
                10-15 Thou
                Life Span
                22 yrs
                WEIGHT
                28-64 kg
                LENGTH
                1.2-1.5 m

                The smallest of the pinnipeds is the Galápagos fur seal. It has a short, pointed muzzle, a little, button-like nose and rather large eyes. The coat of this animal varies from dark brown to dark gray, with longer light-tipped guard hairs that create a grizzled appearance. Males also have a mane with slightly longer hairs, that go from the top of their head to their shoulders. The muzzle and also the fur of the underside are paler, with females and adolescents having a rusty-tan belly and a pale grayish-tan chest. The flippers are blackish. The pups are blackish-brown, though sometimes they have whitish or grayish margins around the nose and mouth.

                Distribution

                This species is native to the Galápagos Islands, and the main colonies inhabit the western islands, with Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina being the most populated. A colony of these seals has recently been discovered on Isla Foca in northern Peru. When in the Pacific Ocean’s deep waters they trail the Humboldt Current. When ashore, the Galápagos fur seal prefers rocky areas where it can shelter from the sun between large boulders and under ledges.

                Galápagos Fur Seal habitat map

                Geography

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Galápagos fur seals are nocturnal feeders and make foraging trips that usually last about 16 hours. Their average dive takes them down 10 to 30 meters. On land they live together in large groups, divided up by the males’ attempts to establish territories, which can be as large as 200 square meters. Within these territories, females are usually found in groups numbering 6 to 10. Galápagos fur seals live in a mainly tropical environment and are a non-migratory species. They spend up to 30% of their time on land and subsequently have many behaviors that avoid the heat of the sun, including lying in shade next to boulders, under lava ledges and in caves, and making trips to the sea.

                Diet and Nutrition

                Galápagos fur seals eat fish, octopus, and squid.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                August-November
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                12 months
                BABY CARRYING
                1 pup
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                2-3 years
                FEMALE NAME
                cow
                MALE NAME
                bull
                BABY NAME
                pup

                These seals are polygynous, a single male mating with multiple females. The males will establish territories and defend their group of females. One male may mate with between 6 and 10 females that are located within his territory. Breeding occurs from August to November. Gestation lasts for about 12 months, with delayed implantation (when the embryo, rather than developing, is maintained in a dormant state, which lengthens the normal gestation period), and a single pup is born. The pups begin to make ventures into the ocean at the age of 6 months and start to find their own food at 12 months. However, the young seals continue to rely on their mother’s milk as a main form of nourishment until around 2 or 3 years old, when they are weaned and become independent. Females reach sexual maturity between 3 and 5 years of age, and males take slightly longer, from 7 to 10 years, to gain sexual maturity and become big enough to defend their territory.

                Population

                Population threats

                El Nino (when the temperature of the surface water of the equatorial Pacific Ocean fluctuates, having a strong impact on the climate) greatly affects this species, as it causes the warming of the ocean and thus reduces marine productivity and food sources, which makes the mother seal neglect her pup and wean it too soon, which can mean that the pup starves. Galápagos fur seals also suffer from oil spills and other pollution of their habitat. They are further threatened by natural predators, particularly feral dogs on the islands where they live.

                Population number

                According to the IUCN Red List, the Galápagos fur seal total population size is estimated at about 10,000-15,000 individuals. Their numbers are decreasing today and this species is classified as Endangered (EN).

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • Galápagos fur seals utter two distinct sounds when foraging in the ocean at night: a lengthened growl and a snap or knocking noise. The purpose of these sounds is not known, but it is thought that they aid in foraging and they are not a form of communication.
                • The Galápagos fur seal’s scientific name, Arctocephalus galapagoensis, comes from Greek and it means “bear handed”.
                • Research shows that this seal actually sweats when it gets too hot. It has to go to a lot of effort to cool its body down. It is thought that mother seals teach their pups this process when they are very young. This process is known as thermoregulation and works by controlling blood flow to the flippers. More blood is sent to the flippers when they are warm and is pushed away from them when they are cold.
                • An adult male Galápagos fur seal can defend its territory during the breeding season without eating until physical demands, the need to eat or the heat becomes too much, and only then will he enter the water.
                • Galápagos fur seals forage during the night, so the cycles of the moon seem to have a large impact on their eating habits, as they usually feed less during the time of the full moon cycle.
                • A fur seal has good eyesight and excellent hearing. Whiskers on their face help them to find food in murky water.

                References

                1. Galapagos Fur Seal Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gal%C3%A1pagos_fur_seal
                2. Galapagos Fur Seal on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/2057/0

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