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                Great Egret

                Great Egret

                Common egret, Large egret, Great white heron

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Class
                Subclass
                Infraclass
                Superorder
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Ardea alba
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                15-22 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                51 km/h
                WEIGHT
                700-1,500 g
                HEIGHT
                1 m
                LENGTH
                80-104 cm

                This elegant heron is completely white with its magnificent plumage, reminding lace. The bill of the Great egret is sharp, long and yellow in color. The bird has long, black feet and legs. During the breeding season, the bill becomes a bit darker while the legs get lighter. This bird possesses a very long neck, exceeding the length of its body. The bird has a notable kink of its neck, curving the necks into a "S" shape when flying. Male and female egrets generally look similar, though females are a bit smaller than males. Young egrets usually look like non-breeding adults. During the breeding season, these birds grow long, lacy shaped feathers known as "aigrettes”, stretching them in an impressive display.

                Distribution

                This bird is widely distributed throughout the world including North and South Americas, Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In Africa, they can be found only outside the breeding season. Great egrets prefer living near any water body, occurring along streams, lakes, in saltwater and freshwater marshes, muddy areas and ponds. Just like other heron species, these birds are most frequently found in wetlands and wooded swamps.

                Great Egret habitat map

                Geography

                Countries
                Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Show More Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, DR Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macao, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Finland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Norway, Sao Tomé and Principe, Seychelles, Sweden, United Kingdom, Afghanistan Show Less

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Great egrets are diurnal feeders. They can feed both in flocks of their own kind and these of other heron species. In sunset, egrets of surrounding areas usually come together, roosting in colonies. They feed in shallow water, walking slowly and looking for prey. And when the prey is spotted, they abruptly thrust the bill into the water, catching it. They will also steal a great part of their food from smaller heron species. After breeding, these birds usually disperse. Egrets, living in mild climates, remain in their breeding areas throughout the winter while those, breeding in northern regions where water freezes during the winter, have to migrate. As many bird species, Great egrets become rather aggressive when it comes to feeding, even if there's abundance of food. Occasionally, even parents can fight for food with their young.

                Diet and Nutrition

                Great egrets are carnivores (piscivores). Their usual diet consists primarily of fish. However, they can feed upon wide variety of aquatic animals, including frogs and crustaceans. They will also consume terrestrial species such as rodents and grasshoppers.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                starts in the middle of April
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                23-24 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                6-7 weeks
                FEMALE NAME
                hen
                MALE NAME
                cock
                BABY NAME
                chick
                BABY CARRYING
                3-4 eggs

                Great egrets are seasonally monogamous, mating once in a mating season and staying with their mates until the end of the season. Usually, males give a number of displays in order to attract the female. Then they select the territory. The breeding season starts in the middle of April, when the birds construct nests. They build their nests in wetlands or wooded swamps with these of other herons, usually nesting in colonies. They try to construct their nests as high as possible. Great egrets' nests are typically unstable platforms, made of stems, sticks and twigs. Great egrets rear one brood of chicks a year. The female lays the eggs, after which both parents take part in the incubation for 23-24 days. An average egret clutch contains 3 to 4 eggs. After 3 weeks, the chicks start to climb about the nest. Then, after another 3-4 weeks, the young fledge. At the age of 2 years, the egrets are able to yield offspring.

                Population

                Population threats

                In the past, Great egrets were highly threatened due to their feathers, used in plume trade. Nowadays, these birds suffer from loss and degradation of their wetland habitat due to invasion of exotic plants, excessive salinity, burning, clearing, drainage and grazing. On the other hand, populations in Madagascar are likely to decrease because of local people, collecting their eggs and chicks.

                Population number

                The exact number of their global population is presently unknown. However, only in North America, there are around 180,000 estimated breeding pairs of this bird. The European population of Great egrets estimated at 20,700-34,900 pairs. On the IUCN Red List, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC).

                Ecological niche

                On one hand, these birds control populations of fish and insects within their range. On the other hand, they themselves are key prey species for local predators.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • In the breeding season, Great egrets develop long ornamental plumes. During courtship rituals, they give displays, fanning out the plumes just like peacocks.
                • This bird is the symbol of the oldest environmental organization in North America, the National Audubon Society, which was originally founded to protect birds, hunted for their feathers.
                • The Great egret usually feeds, walking in water. However, it can occasionally be seen swimming to catch prey. In addition, the egrets can sometimes hover over the water's surface, looking for prey items as well as dive under the water to catch fish.
                • The oldest recorded Great egret was found in Ohio (USA) at the age of 22 years and 10 months.
                • Great egrets use various forms of communication. Thus, they frequently use vocalizations such as harsh, low "corr" sound. Meanwhile, defending their territory, these birds give out sharp yelling sound and leap at the opponent, hitting him with their beak. And finally, they use their courtship plays as an elaborate form of communication.

                References

                1. Great Egret Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_egret
                2. Great Egret on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22697043/0

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