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                Pygmy Hippo

                Pygmy Hippo

                Pygmy hippopotamus

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Choeropsis liberiensis
                Population size
                2,000-2,500
                Life Span
                30-50 yrs
                TOP SPEED
                30 km/h
                WEIGHT
                180-275 kg
                HEIGHT
                75-100 cm
                LENGTH
                150-175 cm

                Pygmy hippos are rarely found, easily recognizable and huge mammals that have always had a relatively small overall population. These animals are closely related to the hippopotamus, inhabiting West Africa. Pygmy hippos compose a separate class of animals. Like the hippopotamus, they are semi-aquatic creatures, although they spend a considerable part of their time on the ground. A constant source of water is a vital life condition for Pygmy hippos, since it prevents their skin from drying and helps them control body temperature.

                Distribution

                The natural range of this species covers West Africa, including countries such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Ivory Coast. Within this territory, Pygmy hippos inhabit midst parts of tropical lowland forests with dense cover. These semi-aquatic mammals live and construct burrows along swamps and rivers, constantly remaining in close proximity to water.

                Pygmy Hippo habitat map

                Geography

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Pygmy hippos tend to lead solitary life, avoiding conspecifics. When encountering each other in the wild, hippos usually ignore one another. Each individual defends its territory through fecal marking. These mammals socialize only during the mating season as well as when rearing their offspring. They generally exhibit nocturnal activity, being most active from the late afternoon to midnight. They spend around 6 out of 24 hours per day feeding. The daytime hours are spent resting in the water or on the river bank. Pygmy hippos sleep on the ground, typically in caves of burrows. Each site is used for only a few days, since these hippos change their sleeping quarters once or twice a week. Although normally silent, they may sometimes give out snorting, grunting, hissing and squeaking sounds.

                Diet and Nutrition

                These mammals maintain strictly herbivorous or plant-based diet, composed of herbs, broad-leaved plants, grasses, semi-aquatic plants, herbaceous shoots, forbs, sedges, ferns as well as occasional fallen fruits.

                Mating Habits

                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                Year-round in captivity
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                184-210 days
                BABY CARRYING
                1 calf
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                6-8 months
                FEMALE NAME
                cow
                MALE NAME
                bull
                BABY NAME
                calf

                Pygmy hippos in captivity are known to exhibit monogamous mating system, where each individual has only one mate. Those in the wild are thought to be polygynous, since territory of each male overlaps with these of multiple females. Some researchers suggest that Pygmy hippos are polygynandrous (promiscuous) with both males and females breeding with multiple mates. Captive Pygmy hippos do not have a specific breeding season, but instead can mate at any time of the year. Individuals breed once every 7 - 9 months. A single baby is born after 184 - 210 days of gestation. The newborn hippo lives alone as the mother forages, visiting to suckle the baby 3 times a day. The calf is weaned at 6 - 8 months old and is reproductively mature at 3 - 5 years of age.

                Population

                Population threats

                Pygmy hippos are currently threatened by a number of factors, which negatively affect the small population of this endangered species. To mention just a few, deforestation, hunting, development agriculture and civil conflicts are among serious threats to these animals. Although Pygmy hippos are legally protected throughout their range, the total population is decreasing due to scarcity or absence of suitable resources.

                Population number

                According to the IUCN Red List, the population number of Pygmy hippos is around 2,000-2,499 mature individuals. According to the Pygmy Hippo Foundation resource, the total population of this species in the wild is about 2,000 individuals, majority of which live in Liberia and the rest inhabit Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Ivory Coast. Currently, Pygmy hippos are classified as Endangered (EN) and their numbers continue to decrease.

                Ecological niche

                The ecological niche of this species is insufficiently explored, although Pygmy hippos are likely to impact plant communities of their range through their plant-based diet.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • Pygmy hippos exhibit excellent swimming abilities. When they dive, the species muscular valves in their ears and nostrils close off.
                • These mammals possess a four-chambered stomach. However, they are not true ruminants and hence ferment food and use microbes in a different way than true ruminants. Additionally, Pygmy hippos never chew their cud.
                • Each individual of this species can consume as much as 100 - 150 pounds of grass per night.
                • Pygmy hippos are noticeably smaller than the Common hippos. Hence, when specimen of this species was found, some scientists considered it a stunted or juvenile Common hippo. However, in 1911, Schomburgk brought five specimens to Europe and the Pygmy hippos were recognized as a separate species.
                • "Hippopotamus" is a Greek word, meaning a "river horse".
                • An adult individual of this species can dive for as long as 5 - 6 minutes at a time.
                • The feet of these mammals are slightly fused, allowing them to walk along bottoms of rivers as well as ascend slippery river banks.

                References

                1. Pygmy Hippo Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_hippopotamus
                2. Pygmy Hippo on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/10032/0

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