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                Spotted Sandpiper

                Spotted Sandpiper

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Class
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Actitis macularius
                Population size
                660,000
                Life Span
                12 yrs
                WEIGHT
                34-50 g
                LENGTH
                18-20 cm
                WINGSPAN
                37-40 cm

                Spotted sandpipers are small shorebirds that occur across North America. Adults have short yellowish legs and an orange bill with a dark tip. Their body is brown on top and white underneath with black spots. Non-breeding birds, depicted below, do not have the spotted underparts, and are very similar to the Common sandpiper of Eurasia; the main difference is the more washed-out wing pattern visible in flight and the normally light yellow legs and feet of the Spotted sandpiper.

                Distribution

                Spotted sandpipers breed across most of Canada and the United States. They migrate to the southern United States, the Caribbean, and South America. During the breeding season, these birds are found near freshwater including, lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams. On migration and on the wintering grounds Spotted pipers inhabit seashores, beaches, mudflats, mangroves, and lagoons.

                Spotted Sandpiper habitat map

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Spotted sandpipers are not gregarious birds, and are seldom seen in flocks. They are diurnal spending the day preening, bathing, and foraging. Spotted sandpipers feed on the ground or in shallow water, picking up food by sight. They may also catch insects in flight. As Spotted sandpipes forage, they can be recognized by their constant nodding and teetering. When alarmed the birds produce a 'weet-weet' and 'peet-peet-peet' calls.; they also communicate with soft trills and in flight make a series of 'peet' notes.

                Seasonal behavior

                Diet and Nutrition

                Spotted sandpipers are carnivores. They feed on insects, crustaceans, other invertebrates, and small fish.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                INCUBATION PERIOD
                20-24 days
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                17-21 days
                BABY NAME
                chick
                BABY CARRYING
                3-4 eggs

                Spotted sandpipers are polyandrous and during each summer breeding season, females may mate with and lay clutches for more than one male, leaving incubation to them. Females that fail to find additional mates usually help incubate and rear chicks. Spotted sandpipers nest on the ground near the water and hide their nests under shrubs or weeds. The nest is shallow depression lined with grass, moss, or sometimes feathers. The female lays 3-4 eggs per clutch and the male incubates them alone for 20-24 days. The chicks are precocial and are able to walk soon after hatching. They are able to feed themselves and are tended primarily by the male. The young usually fledge 17-21 days after hatching and start to breed when they are about 1 year old.

                Population

                Population threats

                Although Spotted sandpipers are widespread and common their numbers are declining mainly due to habitat loss, the use of pesticides, and hunting.

                Population number

                According to Partners in Flight resource, the total population size of the Spotted sandpiper is 660,000 breeding individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing.

                Ecological niche

                Due to their diet habits Spotted sandpipes control populations of their prey items and in turn serve as an important food source for local predators.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • The genus name of the Spotted sandpiper 'Actitis' comes from Ancient Greek 'aktites' and means 'coast-dweller'.
                • Spotted snipers have a distinctive stiff-winged flight low over the water.
                • The roles of the males and females in Spotted sandpipers are reversed. Females establish and defend territories, and attract males, meanwhile, males incubate the eggs and take care of newly hatched chicks.
                • The characteristic teetering motion of the Spotted sandpiper gets faster when the bird is nervous; however, when the sandpiper is aggressive, disturbed, or displaying, the teetering stops.
                • Due to the teetering habit, the Spotted sandpiper has earned various nicknames; these include teeter-peep, teeter-snipe, teeter-bob, perk bird, jerk bird, and tip-tail.

                References

                1. Spotted Sandpiper on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted_sandpiper
                2. Spotted Sandpiper on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22693277/93394194

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