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                Squirrel Glider

                Squirrel Glider

                Australian squirrel glider, Flying squirrel, Squirrel flying opossum, Squirrel flying phalanger, Sugar squirrel

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Infraclass
                Family
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Petaurus norfolcensis
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                3-6 yrs
                WEIGHT
                190-300 g
                LENGTH
                18-23 cm

                The Squirrel glider is so called due to its densely furred and bushy tail. As other gilders, this marsupial travels in trees by gliding, using a membrane of skin between its limbs. As a matter of fact, the scientific name of this small, arboreal possum means 'Norfolk Island rope dancer', although the animal is not found on Norfolk Island. These possums can often be seen together with their better known relatives - the Sugar gliders. During these congregations, Squirrel gliders typically exceed their relatives in amount.

                Distribution

                The range of Squirrel gliders cover a huge area, stretching along the east coast of Australia, from Cape York Peninsula (Queensland) to central Victoria. They are also widely distributed throughout the coastal side of the Great Dividing Range, between southern Queensland and central New South Wales. In the northeastern parts of their range, these possums may occur in a variety of habitats, including dry and open sclerophyll forests, woodland, tall coastal forests and Banksia woodland. Populations in north Queensland are known to inhabit areas, dominated by ironbark, lemon-scented gum and forest red gum. In certain parts of Queensland, these gliders are rarely found in rainforest, instead inhabiting wet eucalyptus forest. They can also live in urban areas such as the suburbs of Brisbane.

                Squirrel Glider habitat map

                Climate zones

                Habits and Lifestyle

                These nocturnal animals spend the daytime hours in their nests, which are typically located inside tree hollows. As arboreal animals, Squirrel gliders construct their dens in trees, growing on steep slopes. Each individual may have multiple dens, although it will mainly use only 1 - 2 of them. Their dens are located close to areas, where these animals spend their nighttime hours. During the day, a Squirrel glider will use dens, placed at an average distance of 218 meters from each other. Families of Squirrel gliders usually consist of one adult male, one or more adult females at their offspring of that season. On their foreheads, male gliders possess special scent glands, by which they mark their territories, thus announcing of their presence. In order to communicate with conspecifics, they use vocalizations such as gurgling chatters, soft and nasal grunts as well as and repetitive, short gurgles.

                Diet and Nutrition

                This omnivorous animal primarily feed upon nectar and pollen. In a case if these foods are unavailable, they can be altered with huge amount of sap and gum, especially acacia gum and sap of some eucalypts. The Squirrel gliders supplement their diet with green seeds of the Golden Wattle and various insects such as beetles and caterpillars.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                June-January
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                3 weeks
                BABY CARRYING
                1-2 joeys
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                110-120 days
                BABY NAME
                joey

                Squirrel gliders are polygynous, which means that each male can mate with one or more females per breeding season. They breed in June and January. After a gestation period of less than 3 weeks, females give birth to 1 - 2 joeys. They typically yield one or two litters per year. Newborn babies move into the pouch of their mother, where they remain for about 70 days. Weaning occurs at around 76 days old, while their eyes open only by 84 - 85 days old. Coming out of maternal pouch, young gliders continue living in the nest for the following 40 - 50 days. And finally, at 110 - 120 days old, joeys begin emerging from the nest in order to forage with their mother. Females of this species are ready to produce offspring at 1 year old.

                Population

                Population threats

                Although classified as Least Concern, Squirrel gliders are threatened by a number of factors. Thus, these animals are highly threatened by introduced predators such as cats or foxes. In the southern parts of their range, Squirrel gliders suffer from clearing of their woodland habitat, which is altered with agricultural land or used in forest operations. As a result, they lose many of the tree hollows, which are vital life condition for these possums, using them as nesting sites.

                Population number

                According to IUCN, the Squirrel glider is locally common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC), although its numbers are decreasing.

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • Gliding between trees, these agile possums are known to perform various acrobatic manoeuvres.
                • They are able to glide up to 60 meters at a time.
                • When gliding through the air, they are can balance due to the membranes of skin, acting as wings.
                • Pollen, nectar and sap make up an important part of their diet. In order to draw sap out of trees, Squirrel gliders stab tree trunks with their sharp teeth and the sap oozes out, providing them with a tasty meal.
                • When gliding, they jump into the air, stretching out their limbs so that the membrane between the limbs extend. In order to slow down before stopping, they swoop up, sticking to a tree with their long claws.
                • As a matter of fact, Squirrel gliders are possums, not squirrels. When threatened or alarmed, they jump, fleeing to the tree with the thickest vegetation, where they can safely land, clinging onto one of the branches.

                References

                1. Squirrel Glider Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squirrel_glider
                2. Squirrel Glider on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/16728/0

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