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                Wood Mouse

                Wood Mouse

                Long-tailed field mouse, Field mouse, Common field mouse, European wood mouse

                Kingdom
                Phylum
                Subphylum
                Class
                Order
                Superfamily
                Family
                Subfamily
                Genus
                SPECIES
                Apodemus sylvaticus
                Population size
                Unknown
                Life Span
                1-4 yrs
                WEIGHT
                13-27 g
                LENGTH
                60-150 mm

                The Wood mouse is quite similar to the yellow-necked mouse, although differs from latter by absence of yellow collar, resembling a bib on the animal's chest. The Wood mouse is otherwise known as 'the Long-tailed field mouse' due to its long tail that is approximately the same size as the total length of the head and body. It's the most widespread and abundant rodent, native to the British Isles. The overall coloration of its fur is reddish-brown. The belly of the animal is either white or greyish.

                Distribution

                The Wood mouse has a rather large area of distribution, stretching from Britain and nearby islands to continental Europe (except for northern Scandinavia and Finland) through northwestern Africa and southwestern Asia to the Altai and Himalayan mountains. This rodent is capable of living in any environment with suitable sheltering sites, but will generally prefer grassy fields, cultivated areas, woodlands and forests.

                Wood Mouse habitat map

                Habits and Lifestyle

                Individuals are normally nocturnal, except for lactating females that may have short periods of activity during the daytime hours. In addition, some males may also be active by day. Instead of hibernating, these rodents gather in communal nests during the cold winter months. By spring, females move to their own territories to nest solitarily. There have been known cases of two females within a single territory. Dwellings of these rodents are underground burrows, typically located under the roots of shrubs or trees, in tree holes, buildings as well as in nest boxes of birds and dormice. Each burrow has nest chambers and food stores. These burrows are often used by following generations and may sometimes be enlarged or modified if necessary. Wood mice are excellent climbers. They are known to use abandoned bird nests, located high in trees and providing them with secluded places, where they can enjoy berries and other type of food that they have cached. They rarely move and usually live in the same area. Wood mice are known to take night trips of quarter of a mile (400m).

                Diet and Nutrition

                Wood mice are omnivores, they generally feed upon roots, grains, seeds, berries, nuts, grasses, grain kernels and fruits, supplementing this diet with occasional insects and snails.

                Mating Habits

                MATING BEHAVIOR
                REPRODUCTION SEASON
                February-October
                PREGNANCY DURATION
                21-26 days
                BABY CARRYING
                4-7 pups
                INDEPENDENT AGE
                3 weeks
                FEMALE NAME
                doe
                MALE NAME
                buck
                BABY NAME
                pup, pinkie, kit

                Wood mice have a polygynous mating system. They breed between February and October. During this period, individuals compete for their mating rights. Female wood mice are able to produce up to 4 litters per year. Gestation period lasts 21 - 26 days, yielding 4 - 7 young, which are born in a nest chamber in their mother's burrow that is lined with soft underlay of leaves, moss and grass. The eyes of newborn babies are closed, opening at 6 days old, by which time they have attained their fur, which is darker than that of mature individuals. At 3 weeks old, young are driven out of the nest by their mother, after which they begin living independently. Within two months, young Wood mice become reproductively mature.

                Population

                Population threats

                Although classified as Least Concern, Wood mice suffer from hedgerows and loss of their woodland habitat. They are also potentially threatened from agricultural modifications in a form of chemicals, which can be a serious concern both directly and through food contamination.

                Population number

                The Wood mouse is abundant and widespread throughout its range but there are no estimates of population numbers for this species. However, according to the British Wildlife Center resource, this species’ population number in Great Britain is around 38 million individuals. Overall, Wood mice’s numbers remain stable today, and the animals are currently classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.

                Ecological niche

                The Wood mouse is an important seed disperser of its range. Also this animal is the major prey species for local predators (owls, foxes, cats).

                Fun Facts for Kids

                • When looking for food, these rodents often collect and disperse leaves, twigs and other visually conspicuous objects that serve as landmarks as they explore the area.
                • When caught by the tail, this rodent sometimes shed the end of its tail to flee. However, the shed part of the tail often doesn't regrow.
                • Grooming is an important part of their lives. Wood mice spend a great part of their active time grooming, during which they wipe their face and ears with their front paws. They clean their tails by passing them through their mouths. Mutual grooming is a common activity between males and females.
                • The Wood mice closely resemble the Pygmy field mice by their habits and appearance. These two species often live in the same habitat and are truly called "twin" species. The Wood mice are also very similar to the Yellow necked mice. However, these animals are separate species that don't interbreed.
                • Female mice are known as 'does', whereas males are referred to as 'bucks'.
                • In spite of its small size and a very tiny stomach, this rodent has a big appetite, eating as often as 15 - 20 times per day. This is the reason why mice tend to live near food sources.
                • These flexible animals are capable of squeezing through spaces as small as the size of a dime. For example, a tiny space between the wall and a utility pipe on the outside of a wall is enough for this rodent to enter your house.

                References

                1. Wood Mouse Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_mouse
                2. Wood Mouse on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1904/0

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